Prin acest blog, doresc să promovez conceptul de întâietate a Bibliei antice, faţă de versiunile Bibliilor moderne, îndemnând creştinii să pună accent pe verificarea textului biblic (ebraic, aramaic, grec).
Dacă avem un text greşit şi ne bazăm pe un text greşit, putem să clădim învăţături false şi prin ele să practicăm lucruri inutile, ba chiar contrare învăţăturii biblice.
My transcription of the Khabouris Codex began in September 2004, when I realized the importance of this manuscript as an independent witness when compared with to the 1905 Peshitta. In a careful reading of the entire manuscript during the time of transcription, I noted several places where the differences were grammatical, while other differences were the choice of some few synonyms, but there were less than a handful of errors in the entire manuscript.
When I began to notice these differences, using the 1905 Peshitta text as a comparative guide, I devised aCOLOUR-CODE to mark and distinguish these differences in a way that would be easy to use by those that would like to delve deeper into the finished work.
The following is the introduction presented at
An Introduction to the Khaburis Manuscript Reverend Deaconess Nancy Witt, PT, MSW, MSJ With Abbott Gerrit Crawford, PhD, MSJ Western-Rite Syrian Orthodox Church in America
The Khaburis Manuscript is a copy of a second century New Testament, which was written in approximately 165 AD (internally documented as 100 years after the great persecution of the Christians by Nero, in 65AD). Carbon dating has found this copy of the New Testament to be approximately 1,000 years old. Given its origins, this would make it a copy of the oldest known New Testament manuscript. It was scribed on lamb parchment and hand bound between olive wood covers adorned with gold clasps, hinges and corner-brackets. The scribe would have been in ancient Nineveh (present-day Mosul, Iraq), according to the Colophon signed by a Bishop of the Church at Nineveh. In the Colophon, the Bishop certified (with his inverted signature and seal) that the Khaburis was a faithful copy of the second century original. Of particular interest, is the fact that the Khaburis is written entirely in Aramaic, the tongue of Y’Shua, otherwise popularly known as Jesus, the Nazarite.
The original second century manuscript, as well as the Khaburis, were scribed in the ancient Estrangelo script. The script which was developed at the School of Edessa (100AD) in order to record the Teachings of Y’Shua. The word, Estrangelo, actually means “to write the Revealed Message.” Prior to this script, as in the older Syriac and Hebrew writings, ancient Aramaic used only consonants as a form of shorthand. This became a challenge for the early Christians, as the Word spread out from its origin in time and place. To preserve accuracy in comprehension of the message, the writings needed to clearly represent the pronunciation of the vowels in each word. So, in Estrangelo, vowel points were added to clarify the pronunciations, and meanings. It appears that Estrangelo was the first such Semitic writing to include these vowel points. Translations of the New Testament into Greek, then Latin, then Middle English, and then Modern English progressively lost more and more of the nuances of the Aramaic. Until this past century, those Western languages/cultures could not express certain concepts core to the Aramaic understandings of the mind. With the translation of this manuscript using these re-discovered understandings, entire concepts that seemed, at times, baffling, become crystal clear. The message in Y'Shua's Teachings becomes even more logical, and ever more centered around the concepts of Love and Forgiveness.
Within Eastern Christianity, the spiritual tradition of the "Targums" (similar to the Jewish tradition of Midrash) meant that people would come together to study the Scriptures and learn from discussion. Owning a copy of the New Testament was dependent on a family being able to hire a scribe to make a copy. In western culture, for many centuries, access to the Bible was limited to clergy, and until the advent of the printing press, common westerners did not have the same first-hand access as the eastern peoples did to Y'Shua's Teachings. Bibles were passed from generation to generation. The Khaburis is one such New Testament. "The Manuscript was written as a whole New Testament of the twenty-two books of the Oriental Canon, which excludes Revelations and four short Epistles (II Peter, II and III John, and Jude)."1 Its actual history is uncertain.
In the early 1960's two Americans, Drs. Norman Malik Yonan and Dan MacDougald, Jr., set out to locate an intact Aramaic New Testament. Their hope was to uncover the meaning behind Y’Shua’s Aramaic words, by which he was able to "drive out demons" and cure mental illness. Because the Yonan (Family) Codex (c. 400-700 CE) was amended and incomplete, they were interested to see if finding a more intact version of the New Testament could be enlightening. Their journey led them into Mesopotamia, and eventually to a monastery on the River Khabur, a tributary of the River Euphrates, in the mountainous region of northern Syria, and southern Turkey, a region, populated to this day, with Aramaic-speaking Christians. It was here, at this monastery on the River Khabur, that the Khaburis Codex had been treasured for centuries. At the monastery, they spent time with a centenarian monk, who was able to help them to understand some of the meanings.
As it turned out, they ended up actually purchasing the manuscript and bringing it back to America, where, for some years, a team of Aramaic-speaking scholars from the Yonan Codex Foundation labored to decipher and translate from the ancient script. This work eventually led to some amazing discoveries, due to the newly revealed concepts from the original Aramaic. The Teachings of Y'Shua came fully alive, with new meaning and importance. As His Teachings became clearer, Dr. Dan MacDougald, Jr., an attorney in Georgia, developed a course of study, Emotional Maturity Instruction, based on the elemental Teachings of Y'Shua found in Aramaic. Over a period of years, this course proved to make significant improvements in the mental health of those who took it, including many in the penal and mental health systems. An updated version of this course, now called Laws of Living, was co-authored by Dr. MacDougald and dr. michael ryce. This course continues to be taught, annually, by Dr. Ryce at Heartland, his teaching center in the Ozark Mountains of Southern Missouri.
The work of the original Yonan Codex Foundation ended prior to the completion of translation. Before Dan MacDougald passed away, he left the Khaburis in the stewardship of the Western-Rite Syrian Orthodox Church, in order that the validation, documentation, conservation, translation, publication and exhibition could be completed. Work continues on these processes, as well as development of several related books.
Resources: 1) Unpublished writings of Abbott Gerrit Crawford, PhD, MSJ, Western-Rite Syrian Orthodox Church in America 2) fr. michael ryce, N.D., D.C.P. 3) Enlightenment, Khaboris Manuscript, The Yonan Codex Foundation, Inc. Atlanta, GA 1993
You will notice that the spelling of the Codex varies i.e. Khabouris vis-à-vis Khaburis. This is a minor variation since one can derive many different quoined titles from the source, the Khabur River. Nevertheless, the manuscript is unique, no doubt one of many copies, some lost forever, but still others may be waiting to be found.
The text type Estrangelo, “rounded” as opposed to the “square script”, K’tav Ashuri is beautifully scribed throughout the entire manuscript. However six pages in the Gospel of Matthew, Pages 013, 014, 039, 040, 053 and 054 are written in the text type, East Adiabene.
Parts of the manuscript are rubbed off, smudged or otherwise illegible. These letters, words and larger areas have been carefully reconstructed using the 1905 Peshitta text in red.